Monday, 16 January 2012

Anthony D. George, SJ (19??- )

  • Svatantryapurvakalatila Dharmantarita Khristi Vyaktinci Atmanivedane Samajika Ani Vangmayina Abhyasa. Mumbai: Mumbai Vidyapeeth, 2007. [PhD thesis on pre-1947 Marathi converts to Christianity, submitted to Bombay University.]

Sunday, 15 January 2012

Jordanus Catalani (fl. 1302-1330)

  • Mirabilia Descripta (c. 1330). MS. London, British Museum, Additional MSS., 19,513, fols. 3, r.f 2 r.
  • [Letter, MS.] From Caga, 12 October 1321. See, in 1839,—Bibliothèque du Roi—MS. No. 5,006, p. 182), entitled Liber de ætatibus, etc. (National Library, Paris).
  • [Letter, MS.] 20 January 1324. See, in 1839,—Bibliothèque du Roi—MS. No. 5,006, p. 182), entitled Liber de ætatibus, etc. (National Library, Paris).
  • Quétif–Échard, Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum, i. 549-550 (Epistle I.)
  • Wadding, Annales minorum, vi. 359-361 (Epistle II.)
  • Henry Yule. Cathay, giving a version of the Epistles, with a commentary, &c. (Hakluyt Society, 1866) pp. 184–185, 192-196, 225-230.
  • Description des merveilles d'une partie de l'Asie : imprimé d'après un manuscrit du XIVe siècle / par le P. Jordan ou Jourdain Catalani / Edited by Eugène Coquebert de Montbret. Paris : Éverat, Imprimeur, [1839]. Extract from Vol. 4 of the Recueil de voyages et de mémoires of the Société de géographie.
  • Miribilia descripta: The Wonders of the East. London : Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1863
  • Mirabilia descripta. Les merveilles de l'Asie / texte latin, fac-simile et traduction française avec introduction et notes par Henri Cordier. Paris : P. Geuthner, 1925. [Also in Microfilm. Notre Dame, Ind. : University Libraries, University of Notre Dame, filmed February 1995. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.] "Avec fac-simile des 19 planches du manuscrit latin."
  • Mirabilia descripta : the wonders of the East / Jordanus of Severac ; edited by Peter B. Lobo ; [translated by Noel Molloy]. Seminary Hill, Nagpur : Dominican Publications, 1993. xi, 80 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Latin text and English translation on facing pages.
  • Miribilia descripta: Wonders of the East. Reprint. Ayer Publishing, 1967.


  • Cheriyan, C.V. A history of Christianity in Kerala, from the Mission of St. Thomas to the arrival of Vasco Da Gama (A.D. 52-1498). Kerala Historical Society, 1973. 
  • Perumalil, A.C. The Apostles in India. Xavier Teachers' Training Institute, 1971
  • Perumalil, A.C. The apostles in India: fact or fiction? Catholic Book Crusade, 1952.
  • Moraes, A History of Christianity in India from early times to St. Francis Xavier: AD 52-1542. Manaktalas, 1964. 
  • Perumalil, H.C. and E.R. Hambye.Christianity in India- a History in ecumenical perspective. [Contains a chapter IIb by Moraes on John of Monte Corvino and Jordanus.] 
  • Kunstmann, F. Die Mission in Meliapor und Tana und die Mission in Columbo in the Historisch-politische Blätter of Phillips and Görres, xxxvii. 2538, 135-152 (Munich, 1856), &c.
  • Beazley, C.R. Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 215-235.

Saturday, 7 January 2012


  • Boxer, C.R. "A Tentative Check-list of Indo-Portuguese Imprints, 1556-1674." Separata do Boletim do Instituto Vasco da Gama, no. 73. Bastora, Goa: Tipografia Rangel, 1956. (Referred to as Boxer.)
  • Baago, Kaj. (Referred to as Baago.)
  • Hambye, E.R.
  • Hambye, E.R. A bibliography on Christianity in India. Church History Association of India, Editorial Board for a History of Christianity in India, 1976.
  • England, J.C. “Asian Christian Writings in the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: A First Listing.” Asia Journal of Theology 12/2 (1998), 13/1, 13/2 (1999), 14/1 (2000), with bibliographies. [ACT 1:81.]
  • England, J.C. et al, ed. Asian Christian Theologies. 3 vols. 

Gabriel Pacheco (fl. 1770-1790)

[Oratorian from Goa, worked in Sri Lanka]

  • Terappirasaiyin Tirukkatai. [A History of the People of God.] 5 vols. Mannanam, 1880. Tamil.
  • Alukaiykkuravai. [Meditations on Our Lady’s Sorrows.] Tamil. Jaffna, c. 1787.
  • [Meditations upon the Mysteries of Religion and upon the Rosary.] 2 vols. Jaffna, c. 1787. [ACT 1:75.]

Anna Satthianandhan

A Day in the Zenana.  [Caldwell 1881.]
A Good Mother. [Caldwell 1881.] [ACT 1:44-45.]

Satthianandham of Tinnevelly Dt. (c. 1750-1815)

Letters. Sermons. Printed in Reports of the SPCK between 1790 and 1814.
Bible Commentary [Tamil.]
Church History. [Tamil and English].

Anonymous, Subishesa Pubat

Subishesa Pubat. Nellore. 10 poems on the life of Jesus Christ. [ACT 1:44.]

Mangulgiri Ananda-Kavi (fl. 1780)

Vedanta-rasayana. [Telugu.] Life of Christ, and doctrines of the Christian church for the Hindu convert to Christianity. [ACT 1:44.]

Pingali Ellana Rayadu

[Poetical Christian history.] [ACT 1:44.]

Rajah Saraboji (fl. 1790)

Protégé of Schwartz. [ACT 1:44.]

Mallala Pullam Raju (fl. 1750)

  • Gnana Chintamani. [ACT 1:44.]

Antony Kutty Annaviar (fl. 1710-1730)


  • Aradanai Prasagam. 
  • Arul Vasagam.

Lay colleague of Beschi. [ACT 1:44]

Joseph Mary of Bernini (fl. 1730)

  • Dialogue between a Hindu and a Christian. [ACT 1:44.]

[Mar] Thoma IV (1686-1725)

Letters from Mar Thoma IV (1686-1725), head of the Jacobite community in Malabar, to Antioch, Leiden, and Batavia. In Syriac. Contain notes on the history of the Malabar churches, and requests to send bishops and priests. Requests also for Dutch help against the Portuguese clergy. 1709, 1713, 1715, 1717, 1720, 1728. Printed in part in Leiden, 1714, 1863. [Schurhammer 1963: 333ff.] [ACT 1:43.]

Friday, 6 January 2012

Anonymous, Chamo Bedo (c. 1700)

Chamo Bedo. [Veda of Final Rest.] Anonymous MS, c. 1700, issued by F.S. Ellis. Asiatic Researches. Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1822. [Asian Christian Theologies 1:43.]

Anonymous, Ezour Vedam

  • Ezour Vedam. [The Jesus Veda.] Ed. F.S. Ellis. Asiatic Researches. Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1822. [Dialogue between two Vedic sages, one monotheist and one polytheist, in which the monotheism of ‘pristine Hinduism’ prevails and is presented as pointing to Christian truth. This is one of 8 multi-authored or anonymous MS extant in both Sanskrit and French versions, possibly from Tamil and Bengali originals. Asian Christian Theologies 1:43.]
  • Ezourvedam: A French Veda of the Eighteenth Century. Ed. Ludo Rocher. University of Pennsylvania Studies on South Asia, 1. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1984. [Amaladass and Young 376.]

Verse narratives, Church in India, 16-17th centuries

  • Ramban Song. [The Thomas Parvam.] This exists in many ancient traditions, and is believed to originate from a disciple of St Thomas. Recounts the coming of Thomas to India, his travels, the founding of many churches, and ends with his martyrdom at Mylapore in 72 CE. Many versions. Printed in Orientalia Christiana 32 (1933). [1:41.] [Same as Rabban Pattu? see Asian Christian Theologies 1:6]
  • Pingali Ellana Rayadu (c. 1603). Tobhya Carita. [Telugu.] Narrative of the Thomas tradition written by a Brahman poet. [1:42.]

Letters, Church in India, 16-17th centuries

  • Letter of four bishops of Malabar to Patriarch Mar Elias. 1504.
  • Letters of Mar Jacob of Cochin to John III of Portugal. 1524, 1530. Recount the earliest contacts between the Syro-Malabar Christians and the Portuguese. [Asian Christian Theologies 1:41.]
  • Letter of Mar Aithalaha of Mylapore to Archdeacon Palliveettil, 1652. Conflicts resulting from western intervention in doctrine, liturgy, leadership.
  • Letter of Mar Gregorios to Syrian priests in his diocese. 1668. As above.
  • Letters by priests Jacob, Zachariah, Thomas, Paulos, Luka Alexandros, and others, from Malabar to Rome. 1658. 1659. [Kuriakose 1982. Thekkedath 1988.] [ACT 1:41.]

Letters of the ancient Church in India

  • Timothy I [Patriarch] (727-823). Letters. [‘Nestorian’.] The fullest collection of the 200 letters is held in Trichur, Kerala. Timothy is known to have written hymns, commentaries, dissertations, and disputations on other religions, a few of which have survived. [Asian Christian Theologies 19.]

  • Aerthayil, James. The Spiritual Heritage of the St Thomas Christians. Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1982.
  • Aprem, Mar. A Nestorian Bibliography. Trichur: Mar Nasai Press, 1982.
  • Aprem, Mar. “Syriac Manuscripts in Trichur.” Orientalia Christiana Analecta 221 (1983).
  • Brock, Sebastian. A Brief Outline of Syriac Literature. Kottayam: SEERI, 1997.
  • England, J.C. The Hidden History of Christianity in Asia: The Churches of the East before the year 1500. 2nd ed. Delhi: ISPCK; Hong Kong: CCA, 1998.
  • Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Christians in Asia before 1500. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999.
  • Hunt, Lucy-Anne. The Mingana and Related Collections: A Survey of Illustrated Arabic, Greek, Eastern Christian, Persian and Turkish Manuscripts in the Selly Oak Colleges, Birmingham. Birmingham: Mingana Collection, ?1998.
  • Philip, T.V. East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia. Delhi: ISPCK; Tiruvalla: Christian Sahitya Samithy, 1998.
  • Schurhammer, G. “Three Letters of Mar Jacob, Bishop of Malabar 1503-1550.” Orientalia (Rome and Lisboa) (1963) 333-349.
  • Thazhath, Andrews. The Juridical Sources of the Syro-Malabar Church: A Historico-Juridical Study. Kottayam: Orientail Institute of Religious Studies, India, 1987.
  • Young, William G. Patriarch, Shah and Caliph. Rawalpindi: Chbristian Study Centre, 1974.
  • See also Harp (Kottayam, quarterly) 1987-. 

Commentaries and homilies of the ancient Church in India

  • Jacob of Serug (451-521). Memre (metrical homilies). [Asian Christian Theologies 1:8-9.]
  • Isaac of Nineveh (d. c. 700). Memre.
  • Bar-Hebraeus (1226-1286). Memre.
  • Bar-Hebraeus (1226-1286). Treasure of Mysteries.
  • Ephrem (c. 306-373). [Biblical commentary on the OT.]
  • Daniel of Tella (6th CE). [Commentary on the Psalms.]
  • Ishodad of Merv (fl. 850). [Commentary on the NT.]
  • Dionysius bar Salibi (d. 1171). [Commentary on the synoptic Gospels an dthe Pentateuch, along with Bar-Hebraeus’ Treasure of Mysteries.]
  • Philoxenus of Mabbug (6th CE). Prayers.
  • Mar Abdisho of Soba and Bar-Hebraeus (13th CE). Nomocanons.
See post below of 28 February 2011, Early Syrian Christian Literature digitised.

Liturgies, hymns, prayers of the ancient Church in India

  • The Liturgy of the Apostles Addai and Mari. Strongly Semitic. Uses Syriac prayers and scriptures. Concentrates solely upon the experience of the Eucharist, the liturgy itself being called The Mystery of Christ [qurbana?]. [Dix 1949.] Early commentaries suggest that these liturgies received their developed form at least by the 8th century. With little change they are still used today in India, southeast Asia and outside. [Asian Christian Theologies 1:??]
  • Aerthayil, James. The Spiritual Heritage of the St Thomas Christians. Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1982.
  • Dix, Gregory. The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Dacre Press, 1949.
  • Gregorios, P. (Paul Verghese). “East Syrian Worship.” A New Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. Ed. J.G. Davies. London: SCM Press, 1986.
  • Isho Yabh. (fl. 1021-1026). Nestorian Questions on the Administration of the Eucharist. Haarlem: J. Enschedé en zonen, 1937.
  • Maclean, A.J. The Syrian Daily Offices. London: Rivington, 1894.
  • Pathikulangara, Varghese. Qurbana: The Eucharistic Celebration of the Chaldeo-Indian Church. Chaldeo-Indian Liturgy 2. Denha Services, 1998.
  • Spinks, B.D. Addai and Mari – the Anaphora. Bramcote: Grove Books, 1980.
  • Spinks, B.D. Western Use and Abuse of Eastern Liturgical Traditions: Some Cross-Sections in its History.  Placid Lecture Series no. 14. Bangalore: CIIS and Dharmaram Publications, 1992.
  • Vellian, J., ed. Syro Malabar Liturgy. 3 vols. Kottayam: St Joseph’s Press, n.d.

Inscriptions, carvings, crosses of the Church in India

  • Butler, John F. “The Iconography of the Ancient South Indian Incised Crosses.” Indian Church History Review 3/2 (1969). [Asian Christian Theologies 1:4-5.]
  • Choondal, C. “Songs, Arts, Festivals of the Thomas Church.” St Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. G. Menachery. Trichur: STCEI, 1973.
  • Kuriakose, M.K. History of Christianity in India: Source Materials. Madras: Senate of Serampore Colelge & CLS, 1982.
  • Lederle, Matthew. Christian Paining in India through the Centuries. Anand: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash and the Heras Institute of Indian History and Culture, n.d.
  • Mundadan, A.M. Sixteenth Century Traditions of St Thomas Christians. Bangalore: Dharmaram College, 1970.
  • Vazhuthanapilly, Joseph. The Biblical and Archaeological Foundations of the Mar Thoma Sliba. Kottayam: Oriental Institute of Religious Studies, 1988.

Songs and annals of the Church in India

  • Marthomman Pattu. A prayer for the blessing of Mar Thoma and for the presence of Jesus, along with blessings and praises sung to the bride. [Asian Christian Theologies 1:5.]
  • Mayilanchi Pattu. The biblical story of Adam and Even in Eden, concluding with “she is bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh… I may forget everything on her account.” [1:6.]
  • Anthem Charthu Pattu. Declaring the blessing of Our Lord Jesus, relatives, elders and parents, upon the bridal pair. This is sung to the bridegroom. [1:6.]
  • Nallu Palli Pattu. Collection of more than twenty historical songs, recording the lives of priests and bishops, construction of the church, and segments of church history. Churches included: Cranganore, Palayur, Kollam, Chayal and Uzhavoor. [1:6.]
  • Rabban Pattu. Song of Thomas. [Notice Rabban: the word the Jews use for Rabbi.] Claimed to have been written by a disciple of St Thomas, and later translated, c. 1100 CE, by his descendent. Gives the fullest account available of the early traditions of Thomas’ life, ministry, and death, and the particular localities for each event. See Kuriakose 1982, and Mundadan 1984. The present redaction has been influenced by Chaldean accounts and possibly by later Portuguese additions. But it preserves very ancient material, much of which is present in the earliest chronicles of particular churches in south India. [1:6.]
  • Margam Kali Pattu. The Song of the Way. Used to accompany a sacred dance. Describes the introduction to Kerala of the marga or Christian way, and the path of Christian conversion. Such records reveal a devout loyalty to the faith and practices of the churches of the East (East and West Syrian, ‘Nestorian’, Jacobite and Chaldean), which is expressed in community life, both through a spontaneous blending of cultures and a distinctive and disciplined lifestyle. Thomas 1961. [1:6.]
  • Choondal, C. “Songs, Arts, Festivals of the Thomas Church.” St Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. G. Menachery. Trichur: STCEI, 1973. 
  • Hambye, E.R. “The Eastern Chruch (in Medieval India).” Christianity in India. A History in Ecumenidcal Perspective. Ed. H.C. Perumalil and E.R. Hambye. Alleppey: Prakasam Publications, 1972.
  • Kuriakose, M.K. History of Christianity in India: Source Materials. Madras: Senate of Serampore Colelge & CLS, 1982.
  • Lucas, P.U. Ancient Songs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. Kottayam: n.p., 1910.
  • Mundadan, A.M. Sixteenth Century Traditions of St Thomas Christians. History of Christianity in India. Vol. 1: From the Beginning up to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1984.
  • Pothan, S.G. The Syrian Christians of Kerala. Bombay, etc.: Asia Publishing House, 1963.
  • Thomas, P.J. The Christians and Malayalam Literature. [Malayalam.] Kottayam, 1961. 
  • Van der Ploeg, J.P.M. The Syriac Manuscripts of St Thomas Christians. Bangalore: Dharmaram Publicaions, 1983. 

Paulinus of St Bartholomew (1748-1806)

    • "Systema brahmanicum liturgicum, mythologicum, civile, ex monumentis indicis musei Borgiani Velitris dissertationibus historico-criticis illustratum" (Rome, 1791), translated into German (Gotha, 1797);
    • "Examen historico-criticum codicum indicorum bibliothecae S. C. de Propaganda" (Rome, 1792);
    • "Musei Borgiani Velitris codices manuscripti avences, Peguani, Siamici, Malabarici, Indostani ... illustrati" (Rome, 1793);
    • "Viaggio alle Indie orientali" (Rome, 1796), translated into German by Forster (Berlin, 1798);
    • "Sidharubam, seu Grammatica sanscridamica, cui accedit dissert. hiss. crit. in linguam sanscridamicam vulgo Samscret dictam" (Rome, 1799), another edition of which appeared under the title "Vyacaranam" (Rome, 1804);
    • "India orientalis christiana" (Rome, 1794), an important work for the history of missions in India. Other works bear on linguistics and church history.
    • Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Viaggio alle Indie Orientali umiliato alla Santita di N. S. Papa Pio Sesto pontefice massimo da fra Paolino da S. Bartolomeo carmelitano scalzo, Roma, presso Antonio Fulgoni, 1796.
    • Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Voyage aux Indes Orientales, par le p. Paulin de S. Barthelemy, missionnaire; traduit de l'italien ... avec les observations de Mm. Anquetil du Perron, J. R. Forster et Silvestre de Sacy; et une dissertation de M. Anquetil sur la proprieté (in lingua francese), A Paris, chez Tourneisen fils, libraire, rue de Seine, n 12, 1808.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Amarasinha. Sectio prima de caelo ex tribus ineditis codicibus indicis manuscriptis curante P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1798.
    • Paulinus von Heilig Bartholomaus, Atlas pour servir au voyage aux Indes orientales. Par le p. Paulin de Saint-Barthelemy, missionaire (in lingua francese), A Paris, chez Tourneisen fils, 1808.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, De basilica S. Pancratii M. Christi disquisitio. Auctore P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1803.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Dissertation on the Sanskrit language, Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo (in lingua inglese), a reprint of the original Latin text of 1790, together with an introductory article, a complete English translation, and an index of sources by Ludo Rocher, Amsterdam, J. Benjamin, 1977.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Examen historico criticum codicum indicorum bibliothecae Sacrae Congregationis de propaganda fide (in lingua latina), Romae, ex typ. S. C. de Propaganda Fide, 1792.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, India orientalis christiana continens fundationes ecclesiarum, seriem episcoporum, Auctore P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato (in lingua latina), Romae, typis Salomonianis, 1794.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Jornandis vindiciae de Var Hunnorum auctore p. Paulino a S. Bartolomeo carmelita discalceato ... (in lingua latina), Romae, Apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1800.
    • Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Monumenti indici del Museo Naniano illustrati dal P. Paolino da S. Bartolomeo (in lingua latina), In Padova, nella Stamperia del Seminario, 1799.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Mumiographia Musei Obiciani exarata a P. Paulino a S.Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato (in lingua latina), Patavii, ex Typographia Seminarii, 1799.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Musei Borgiani Velitris codices manuscripti Avenses Peguani Siamici Malabarici Indostani animadversionibus historico-criticis castigati et illustrati accedunt monumenta inedita, et cosmogonia Indico-Tibetana, auctore p. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Antonium FUgonium, 1793.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Sidharubam seu Grammatica Samscrdamica. Siddarupam. Cui accedit Dissertatio historico-critica in linguam Samscrdamicam vulgo Samscret dictam, in qua huius linguae exsistentia, origo, praestantia, antiquitas, extensio, maternitas ostenditur, libri aliqui ea exarati critice recensentur, & simul aliquae antiquissimae gentilium orationes liturgicae paucis attinguntur, & explicantur auctore Fr. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua latina), Romae, ex typographia Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide, 1790.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Systema Brahmanicum liturgicum mythologicum civile ex monumentis Indicis musei Borgiani Velitris dissertationibus historico-criticis illustravit fr. Paullinus a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceatus Malabariae missionarius Academiae Volscorum Veliternae socius (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1791.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Vitae synopsis Stephani Borgiae S.R.E. cardinalis amplissimi S. Congr. De Propaganda fide praefecti curante p. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato ... (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1805.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Vyacarana seu Locupletissima Samscrdamicae linguae institutio in usum Fidei praeconum in India Orientali, et virorum litteratorum in Europa adornata a P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo Carmelita discalceato (in lingua latina), Romae, typis S. Congreg. de Propag. Fide, 1804.
    • Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Notitia topographica, civilis, politica, religiosa missionis Malabaricae ad finem saeculi 18. / auctore r. P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo, O. C. D (in lingua latina), Romae, apud Curiam generalitiam, 1937, Tip. A. Manuzio.
    • Paulinus of St. Bartholomew: De manuscriptis codicibus indicis R. P. Joan Ernesti Hanxleden epistola ad. R. P. Alexium Mariam A. S. Joseph Carmelitam excalceatum, Vienna, 1799.

  • Herbermann, Charles, ed. "Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company, 1913.
  • Giuseppe Barone, Vita, precursori ed opere del P. Paolino da S. Bartolommeo (Filippo Werdin) : contributo alla storia degli studi orientali in Europa (Napoli: A. Morano, 1888).
  • Max von Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, II (2nd ed., Paderborn: Schoningh, 1907), 568-69.